想撼動人心,該怎麼說?》

想撼動人心,該怎麼說?》

學會5大演說類型,魅力滿分

文 / Madeleine Cheng        2016-04-15

學會5大演說類型,魅力滿分


學習編寫電腦程式有什麼重要性?學校教育會扼殺我們的創意嗎?失敗經驗對人生能帶來什麼好處?我們如何在生活中運用防水技術?快樂可以激發工作生產力?如果這些是你的演說議題,你會用什麼形式來呈現?

以上5個題目,代表了5種不同類型的演說型態,當你要傳遞新知、說服聽眾改變行為、表達內心的祝福、說明某樣物品如何運作,或是要帶給大家娛樂,因為目的不同,自然應該有不同的出發點與表現形式,甚至你使用的語言、肢體動作、簡報,都要因類制宜,才能將你的議題以正確的方式讓聽眾理解。

此外,在你根據DISC性格測驗找出你的人格特性後,也可以對應到自己最適合的演講類型,這是你最可以發揮的地方;而其他類型,也能知道該如何補強,讓自己逐漸朝全方位邁進。

1.知識性演說Informative Speech

英文的Inform 就是「告知」。這種演說主要是讓講者做「告知」的動作,目的不是要「說服」觀眾。知識性的演說在演講結尾時不會有要take action 的結尾。大部分演講者會大量的分析資料、講事實、呈現非常扎實的數字,或是要解釋某種程序上的分解動作。這種演講都在強調自己的專業性。

Mitch Resnick: Let’s teach kids to code

米切爾‧瑞斯尼克:讓我們教孩子編寫電腦程式

Before making my own Mother’s Day card, I thought I would take a look at the Scratch website. So over the last several years, kids around the world ages 8 and up, have shared their projects, and I thought, I wonder if, of those three million projects, whether( 數字)anyone else has thought to put up Mother’s Day cards. So in the search box I typed in “Mother’s Day,” and I was surprised and delighted to see a list of dozens and dozens of Mother’s Day cards(數字)that showed up on the Scratch website, many of them just in the past 24 hours(數字)by procrastinators just like myself. So I started taking a look at them. (Music) I saw one of them that featured a kitten and her mom and wishing her mom a happy Mother’s Day. And the creator very considerately offered a replay for her mom. Another one was an interactive project where, when you moved the mouse over the letters of “Happy Mom Day,” it reveals a special happy Mother’s Day slogan.(Music) In this one, the creator told a narrative about how she had Googled to find out when Mother’s Day was happening. (Typing) And then once she found out when Mother’s Day was happening, she delivered a special Mother’s Day greeting of how much she loved her mom.

people are starting to recognize the importance of learning to code.( 第一句話就是告知與事實)You know, in recent years, there have been hundreds of new organizations and websites( 數字)that are helping young people learn to code. You look online, you’ll see places like Codecademy and events like CoderDojo and sites like Girls Who Code, or Black Girls Code. It seems that everybody is getting into the act. You know, just at the beginning of this year, at the turn of the new year, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg made a New Year’s resolution that he was going to learn to code in 2012. A few months later, the country of Estonia decided that all of its first graders should learn to code. And that triggered a debate in the U.K.about whether all the children there should learn to code.(強調自己對這領域的專業性)

Informative Speech Topics 知識性演說相關主題分為以下幾個類型,還有一些相關可以發揮的題目:

History and Personalities 歷史及傳記類

▲Great leaders in history 歷史上偉大的領導者

▲Sir Isaac Newton biography 牛頓傳記

▲Life and childhood of Pablo Picasso 畢卡索的一生

Computers/Internet 電腦與網際網路

▲Internet banking security 網路銀行交易安全

▲Safe online shopping tips 安全網路購物小技巧

▲Top social networking sites 受歡迎的社群網站

Computers/Internet 電腦與網際網路

▲Internet banking security 網路銀行交易安全

▲Safe online shopping tips 安全網路購物小技巧

▲Top social networking sites 受歡迎的社群網站

Home and Family 家庭

▲How to prevent stress 如何抗壓

▲Peer pressure situations 同儕壓力

▲Causes of teenage suicide 青少年自殺的原因

Finance 財金

▲Hobbies that make money 能賺錢的興趣

▲How to promote your business? 怎麼宣傳你的生意?

▲Long term financial planning長期的財務規畫

Science 科學

▲All about tsunamis 海嘯知多少

▲Black holes in space 太空中的黑洞

▲Human cloning benets 複製人類基因的好處

Health and Fitness 健康與健身

▲Zika virus 茲卡病毒

▲Why should you quit smoking 為什麼要戒菸

▲Allergic reaction to antibiotics 過敏的反應與抗體

Obeat Informative Speech Topics其他知識性演說

▲Materialism in society 唯物主義

▲How to nd a pen pal? 怎麼交筆友?

▲Exploring reincarnation 探索輪迴

2.說服性演說Persuasive Speech

如果你被邀請到講一個說服性的演說,那大大地恭喜你,因為表示你的能力已經被肯定,可以說服別人了。

大部分的觀眾在一開始大腦還處於否認期階段,要藉由你的簡報說服觀眾站在你的角度思考,或是希望他們跟你的想法是一致的。首先,你要發揮你最大的魅力與吸引力,去創造最大的影響力;再來,你要強調你的立場與其他一般人的不同,把觀眾的想法導向認同你。把你的專業與個人魅力極大化吧!

Ken Robinson: Do schools kill creativity?

肯‧羅賓森:學校扼殺了創意嗎?

Pointers

1. 傳遞訊息時要清楚、到位

2. 透徹理解你要演述資訊的前因後果

3. 用一些例子或個人的經驗來吸引聽眾的注意

4. 結尾要足夠讓人印象深刻

Question Yourself

一旦你訂好題目,你得先問問你自己

1. 這個題目邏輯對嗎?

2. 我會被說服嗎?

3. 這有辦法說服別人嗎?

4. 聽眾可以了解我的核心價值並同意嗎?

5. 我對這個主題夠中立嗎?

6. 我有徹底了解我要說的內容了嗎?

Persuasive Speech Topics說服性演說相關主題以下為一些可以發揮的題目:

▲The need for recycling 資源回收的必要

▲The need for gun control 槍枝控管的必要

▲Global Warming -- What we can do about it?全球暖化,我們該做些什麼?

▲Why we should wear seat belts in cars?為什麼我們該繫安全帶?

▲The dangers of gambling 賭博的危險性

▲Gay marriage 同志婚姻

▲Avoiding junk food 不要吃垃圾食物

▲Three easy ways to improve your time management改善你的時間管理的3 個簡單方式

▲What you should wear for your next date/ jobinterview? 約會/面試時你該穿什麼?

3.特殊場合及具紀念性的演說 Special Occasion Speech

這個類型的演說,幾乎是我們每個人都會有機會遇到的,舉例來說,畢業生致詞、喪禮致詞等,皆在表達祝福、感謝、期許等情感。

JK Rowling: The fringe benefits of failure

J.K. 羅琳:失敗帶來的紅利

The first thing I would like to say is ‘thank you.’( 感謝) Not only has Harvard given me an extraordinary honour,( 感謝) but the weeks of fear and nausea I have endured at the thought of giving this commencement address have made me lose weight. A win-win situation! Now all I have to do is take deep breaths,( 情感動作)squint at the red banners and convince myself( 期許)that I am at the world’s largest Gryffindor reunion.

4.展示型演說 Demonstrative Speech

這主要是用英文的How 來延伸的主題!用來說明解釋定理或物品的運作,通常都會搭配投影簡報來進行,通常這類型主題的演說都是工作需求。

▲How to Make... 怎麼做?

▲How to Repair... 怎麼修?

▲How to Benet From... 怎麼從......得到好處?

▲How to Be... 怎麼成為......?

▲How to Respond... 怎麼做回應?

▲How to Handle... 怎麼處理?

Mark Shaw: One very dry demo

馬克‧蕭:一項乾燥技術的展示

I’m here to show you how(聽到了嗎?第一句就點出How,這是展示型演說的最關鍵字)something you can’t see can be somuch fun to look at. You’re about to exper ience a new, available and exciting technology that’s going to make us rethink how we waterproof our lives.

Demonstration Speech Topics 展示型演說相關主題分為以下幾個類型,還有一些相關可以發揮的題目:

Think Green Demonstration Speech Topics環保議題

▲Save electricity and save money 省電節流

▲Buying a fuel-ecient car 買節能車

▲Recycle at home 居家資源回收

Health and Grooming 健康保健與儀容

▲Read and understand nutrition labels讀懂保健食品標籤

▲Give a baby a bath 幫嬰兒洗澡

▲Wash clothing properly 正確的衣服洗滌方式

Economy 經濟

▲Make your own wedding dress 自製婚紗

▲ Find the best health insurance 找到最好的健康保險

▲Start Green Commuting 節能通勤

5.娛樂型演說 Entertaining Speech

娛樂型演說是用來娛樂你的聽眾的。通常我們會在一些特殊場合發表,舉例來說,婚禮致詞、得獎演說等,都可能會發表娛樂型演說,所以有時候此類型的演說會和特殊場合及具紀念性的演說類型互相重疊。

但要特別注意的是,這裡所指的「娛樂」(entertaining),其實不只是幽默好笑而已,主要目的還是讓聽眾的情緒隨著演說而起舞。

Julia Sweeney: It’s time for “The Talk”

朱莉亞‧斯威尼:與8歲女兒的對話

把不該笑的議題,講得讓觀眾哈哈大笑,這就是功力!

華人父母講到性總是非常害羞,所以如何回答小孩關於性的問題,確實是父母的一大挑戰。其實這不算是一個娛樂性的演講,但講者想要呈現輕鬆的態度,先肯定孩子願意提問的好奇心,不要害羞臉紅,並抱持平常心坦然回答,也提醒自己以尊重幽默的態度回應。整段演講觀眾笑的頻率都跟第一段一樣,非常的緊湊,充分展示出講者的幽默。

I have a daughter, Mulan. And when she was eight, last year, she was doing a report for school or she had some homework about frogs. And we were at this restaurant, and she said, “So, basically, frogs lay eggs and the eggs turn into tadpoles, and tadpoles turn into frogs.” (Laughter)

And I said, “Yeah. You know, I’m not really up on my frog reproduction that much. It’s the females, I think, that lay the eggs, and then the males fertilize them. And then they become tadpoles and frogs.”

And she goes, “And what’s this fertilizing?”

So I kind of said, “Oh, it’s this extra ingredient, you know, that you need to create a new frog from the mom and dad frog.” (Laughter)

And she said, “Oh, so is that true for humans too?”

And I thought, “Okay, here we go.” I didn’t know it would happen so quick, at eight. I was trying to remember all the guidebooks, and all I could remember was, “Only answer the question they’re asking.Don’t give any more information.” (Laughter) So I said, “Yes.” (Laughter)

And she said, “And where do, um, where do human women, like, where do women lay their eggs?”(Laughter)

And I said, “Well, funny you should ask. (Laughter) We have evolved to have our own pond. We have our very own pond inside our bodies. And we lay our eggs there, we don’t have to worry about other eggs or anything like that. It’s our own pond. And that’s how it happens.” (Laughter)

And she goes, “Then how do they get fertilized?” (Laughter)

And I said, “Well, Men, through their penis, they fertilize the eggs by the sperm coming out. And you go through the woman’s vagina.”

And so we’re just eating, and her jaw just drops, and she goes, “Mom! Like, where you go to the bathroom?” (Laughter)

And I said, “I know.I know.” (Laughter) That’s how we evolved. It does seem odd. It is a little bit like having a waste treatment plant right next to an amusement park ... Bad zoning, but ...” (Laughter)

She’s like, “What?” And she goes, “But Mom, but men and women can’t ever see each other naked, Mom. So how could that ever happen?” (Laughter)

And then I go, “Well,” and then I put my Margaret Mead hat on. “Human males and females develop a special bond, and when they’re much older, much, much older than you, and they have a very special feeling, then they can be naked together.” (Laughter)

So we’re driving home and she’s looking out the window, and she goes, “Mom. What if two just people saw each other on the street, like a man and a woman, they just started doing it. Would that ever happen?”

And I said, “Oh, no. Humans are so private. Oh ...” (Laughter)

Entertaining Speech Topics 娛樂型演說相關主題以下為一些可以發揮的題目:

▲My worst embarrassing experience 我最尷尬的經驗

▲The top 3 strangest hobbies 我的3 個怪癖

▲How to successfully fail your exams 怎麼搞砸你的考試

▲How to tell if a tomato is shy 我們怎麼知道番茄是否在害羞

▲Teach your pet to talk 教你的寵物說話

關鍵字: 職場學


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